CopyrightLY – 版权所有区块链毕设代写

区块链毕设代写本文提供国外最新区块链项目源码下载,包括solidity,eth,fabric等blockchain区块链,CopyrightLY – 版权所有区块链毕设代写 是一篇很好的国外资料

CopyrightLY

Decentralized Application (ÐApp) for Copyright Management (available on Ethereum’s testnets Rinkeby and Ropsten through https://copyrightly.rhizomik.net)

CopyrightLY - 版权所有

Note: project originally developed to fulfil the Consensys Academy 2018 Developer Program online course. The focus was on learning and showcasing a wide range of techniques and technologies (IPFS, ENS, Oracles, Upgradeability,…) and not on providing a complete product. The project helped getting the top qualification for that cohort: 114.8 of 120 points.

CopyrightLY smart contracts allow content owners to register their works as what is called a Manifestation, as modelled in the Copyright Ontology.

Manifestations are expressions of authors ideas into pieces of content that can be then used to prove authorship. This is done through the Manifestations contract, which records the IPFS hash of the manifestation content, its title (additional metadata is planned) and when it was manifested. This information can be later used to prove authorship as the content can be retrieved from IPFS.

However, it is not enough to register a Manifestation. Evidences should be also provided to support the authorship claim or the Manifestation will expire after one day. Usually done by the author registering the Manifestation but anyone can add an Evidence supporting a Manifestation

There are Evidences based on content uploaded (to IPFS), implemented by the UploadEvidences contract. The uploaded content can be anything, from a screenshot to a scanned contract in PDF format.

There are also Evidences based on having previously published the content online, for instance in YouTube. The YouTubeEvidences contract allows claiming that a video Manifestation content is also available on YouTube.

Future work:

  • Register YouTubeEvidences from the user interface.
  • Make it possible to register Complaints from the user interface, if someone else has registered content we own. Currently, the contract is implemented but its functionality is not available from the Web client.
  • Evidences can be also added to Complaints.
  • Implement a Token Curated Registry (TCR) of Evidences supporting Manifestations and Complaints. To add evidence, an amount of the CLY token has to be staked. Moreover, anyone (the curators) can also mint some CLY and stake it to support a piece of evidence, with the opportunity of winning additional CLY if they support evidence of a winning manifestation or claim… but the risk of losing it otherwise.

Table of Contents

  • Table of Contents
  • Features
  • Running Locally
    • Required Tools
    • Smart Contracts Deployment
    • Launch Web Application
  • Testing
    • Manifestations Contract
    • UploadEvidences Contract
    • Complaints Contract
    • ExpirableLib Library
    • Evidencable Contract
  • Design Pattern Requirements
  • Security Tools / Common Attacks
  • Library / EthPM
  • Additional Requirements
  • Stretch Goals
    • IPFS
    • uPort
    • Ethereum Name Service
    • Oracles
    • Upgradable Pattern Registry or Delegation
    • LLL / Vyper
    • Testnet Deployment

Features

The functionality provided to the users by the ÐApp through its Web application is:

  1. Minifest Single Authorship

    • Scenario: Register a piece of content not previously registered
    • Scenario: Register a piece of content previously registered
  2. Search Manifestation

    • Scenario: Search a piece of content previously registered
    • Scenario: Search a piece of content not registered
  3. List Own Manifestations

    • Scenario: List own manifestations when I have one
  4. View Manifestation Details (pending e2e tests)

    • Scenario: Detail manifestation without evidence
    • Scenario: Detail manifestation with evidence
  5. Add Uploadable Evidence to Manifestation (pending e2e tests)

    • Scenario: Add unused uploadable evidence
    • Scenario: Add previously used uploadable evidence

For each feature, the linked feature file specifies the steps to accomplish each scenario. The steps are implemented in the steps and pages folders so it is possible to automatically check that the application implements the specified behaviour using End-to-End (E2E) tests based on Cucumber and Protractor.

A report of the feature tests results is available: protractor-cucumber_report

Running Locally

Requirements

Contract deployment and testing is done via Truffle and using Ganache CLI.

Client Web application development is based on Angular.

To install the project and all the required tools:

1-. Clone the project with Git (or download and unzip):

git clone https://github.com/rogargon/copyrightly.git 

2.- Install the project dependencies and development tools, using the following commands from the “copyrightly” folder (run ony by one, in the same order and waiting until the previous one ends):

cd copyrightly  npm install  

Smart Contracts Deployment

After npm has installed all dependencies (requires some time), it is time to deploy the ÐApp smart contracts.

First, start a local development network with the command:

npm run network 

This will start Ganache in http://127.0.0.1:8545 together with 10 sample accounts. These accounts are fixed using the seed:

candy maple cake sugar pudding cream honey rich smooth crumble sweet treat 

To be able to deploy the YouTubeEvidences contract that make use of oracles, as detailed in Oracles section, it is also necessary to deploy the Oraclize Ethereum Bridge on the local network using the following command from a separate terminal:

npm run ethereum-bridge 

Finally, deploy the contracts from another terminal (leaving Ganache and the bridge running on the previous ones):

npm run migrate 

If there are no errors, the contracts will be then deployed to the local development network.

In case the contracts have been previously deployed, and we want to force re-deployment, use the following command instead:

npm run migrate -- --reset 

Launch Web Application

Finally, to start the Angular client Web application locally:

npm start 

Once started, it will be available at: http://localhost:4200

The client application provides the features listed in the Features section above.

It can be tested using the accounts provided by Ganache without requiring a Web3 enabled browser, so you can even test it without the MetaMask extension or after disabling it.

If MetaMask is available, it can be used to configure custom accounts and to sign transactions. For testing, you can load the accounts generated by Ganache using the following seed phrase:

candy maple cake sugar pudding cream honey rich smooth crumble sweet treat 

Then, configure the network used by MetaMask to “Localhost 8545” as shown here.

Support for uPort is pending, but other very convenient Web3 enabled browsers can also be used. Cipher or Coinbase Wallet are recommended on mobile devices. They provide nice features like transactions signing using TouchID/FaceID on iOS or Fingerprint Authentication on Android.

They can be used to test the version of the application already deployed online at: https://copyrightly.rhizomik.net

The application is also available as a Docker container at: https://hub.docker.com/r/rogargon/copyrightly-io/

Testing

The Solidity smart contracts feature a set of tests that can be launched with the following command:

npm run soltest 

The application contracts, and all those imported by them, are compiled before running the tests. Some warnings might appear, but all of them are related to the imported contracts: Proxy and AdminUpgradeabilityProxy from ZeppelinOs.

The following sections describe the tests available for each smart contract, provide links to the files implementing then and list their expected outputs.

Manifestations Contract

Source: Manifestations.sol

This contract is responsible for registering Manifestations, the expressions of authors ideas into pieces of content that can be then used to prove authorship. A manifestation is based on a content hash, some metadata (currently just the title) and the address of the account corresponding to its author (or a list of addresses in the case of joint authorship).

There are 4 Solidity Tests that test the fundamental behaviour of the contract: that the contract can register single and joint authorship (multiple authors for the same manifestation), that registering joint authorship providing just one author is equivalent to stating single authorship, and, finally, that the contract fails if and already registered content hash is used.

TestManifestations.sol

  TestManifestations     ✓ testSingleAuthorRegistered (127ms)     ✓ testJointAuthorRegistered (142ms)     ✓ testSingleAuthorThroughJointAuthorRegistered (79ms)     ✓ testAlreadyRegistered (56ms) 

In addition to the previous Solidity tests, there are 14 additional tests of the same contract but from JavaScript. It is tested again that single and joint authorship work, and that a previously registered manifestation can be later retrieved.

manifestations.test.js

  Contract: Manifestations - Single Authorship     ✓ should register a previously unregistered manifestation (57ms)     ✓ should retrieve a previously registered manifestation     ✓ shouldn't register a previously registered manifestation    Contract: Manifestations - Joint Authorship     ✓ should register joint authorship for unregistered manifestation (55ms)     ✓ should retrieve a previously registered joint authorship manifestation     ✓ shouldn't register a previously registered joint authorship manifestation 

Then, there are tests for the behaviours inherited from the contracts extended by Manifestations.

From OpenZeppelin’s Pausable and Ownable, that the contract can be paused and resumed, but just by the contract owner.

manifestations.test.js

  Contract: Manifestations - Pausable     ✓ shouldn't work when paused by owner (55ms)     ✓ should work again when unpaused by owner (86ms)     ✓ shouldn't be paused by a non-owner 

From ZeppelinOS’ AdminUpgradeabilityProxy, that Manifestations is upgradable and retains state after an upgrade by the proxy admin. Then, that the proxy admin cannot use the proxy to call the proxied Manifestations contract, required for security reasons. Finally, that Manifestations cannot be re-initialized (it has been already initialized during the initial deployment migration). This behaviour is required to make Manifestations upgradable and inherited by extending Initializable.

manifestations_upgradeability.test.js

  Contract: Manifestations - Upgradeability     ✓ should keep stored manifestations after upgrade (151ms)     ✓ shouldn't allow upgrade if called by non-admin (84ms)     ✓ shouldn't work when called by admin through proxy for security     ✓ should fail when trying to re-initialize it 

Finally, the Manifestations contract uses the ExpirableLib library and extends the Evidencable contract, both detailed in a specific subsection below.

ExpirableLib makes it possible to overwrite manifestations that have not received any authorship evidence before an expiry time. The following tests validate that a manifestation can be re-registered after it has expired, but only if it hasn’t received any authorship evidence.

To do so, a new version of the Manifestations contract just for testing is deployed with a “time to expiry” of just 2 seconds. The tests check that re-registration is possible just after more than 2 seconds, but just if no evidence has been added.

manifestations_expirable.test.js

  Contract: Manifestations - Expirable     ✓ should re-register just when already expired (3266ms)     ✓ shouldn't expire if manifestation with evidence (3138ms) 

UploadEvidences Contract

Source: UploadEvidences.sol

This contract implements the registration of evidence-based on uploading content to IPFS. It behaves as an evidence provider for the contract specified when adding the evidence. However, the contract has to be registered as an allowed evidence provider, in the case of these tests in the Manifestations contract.

Multiple evidence should be accumulated for the same manifestation, but just if they are new ones and if the manifestation they are evidence for exists. Finally, only the owner of Manifestations can register evidence providers. It is tested that just the owner of Manifestations can register a new provider that then can add evidence as usual.

uploadevidences.test.js

  Contract: UploadEvidences - Manifestations accumulate evidence     ✓ should add evidence if registered evidence provider (220ms)     ✓ should add multiple evidence for the same manifestation (124ms)     ✓ shouldn't add the same evidence for the same manifestation (116ms)     ✓ shouldn't add the same evidence for a different manifestation (142ms)     ✓ shouldn't add evidence if the manifestation does not exist (522ms)     ✓ shouldn't add evidence if not a registered evidence provider (556ms)     ✓ should be enforced that just the owner registers evidence providers (558ms)  

Complaints Contract

Source: Complaints.sol

This contract was initially implemented using Vyper as detailed in the LLL / Vyper Section. Currently, it uses Solidity as the rest of contracts. It is responsible for registering complaints from accounts that consider that an existing manifestation is not a proper one, i.e. coming from the right creator.

The corresponding tests verify that just one complaint about a given manifestation is allowed at the same time. It is also checked that complaints can be revoked just by the contract owner. Finally, just existing and non-revoked complaints can be retrieved.

complaints.test.js

  Contract: Complaints - Register complaints     ✓ should register a new complaint (160ms)     ✓ shouldn't register a complaint if already one for manifestation     ✓ shouldn't allow revoking complaint if not contract owner     ✓ should retrieve an existing complaint     ✓ should allow revoking complaint if contract owner (46ms)     ✓ shouldn't allow retrieving a revoked complaint     ✓ shouldn't allow retrieving an unexisting complaint 

ExpirableLib Library

Source: ExpirableLib.sol

This library contains the logic for items with a creation and expiry time. With it, manifestations (or complaints) can expire after a certain amount of time. It is tested for Manifestations in: manifestations_expirable.test.js

Evidencable Contract

Source: Evidencable.sol

This is a contract that provides the logic for items that can accumulate evidence. Manifestations (or complaints) can receive evidence by extending this contract.

The idea is that evidence is considered by curators to check the appropriateness of manifestations (and complaints). Moreover, they are counted so manifestations (or complaints) that have accumulated at least one evidence do not expire, as tested for Manifestations in: manifestations_expirable.test.js

Design Pattern Requirements

Details about design pattern decisions

Security Tools / Common Attacks

Details about avoiding common attacks

Library / EthPM

The project imports the following Libraries and Contracts from the corresponding ZeppelinOs and OpenZeppelin NPM packages.

Imported from ZeppelinOS:

  • AdminUpgradeabilityProxy: the proxy contract to implement upgradeability.
  • Initializable: extended by upgradable contracts so they can be initialized from the corresponding proxy.

Imported from OpenZeppelin:

  • Pausable: contract to implement the “Circuit Breaker / Emergency Stop” design pattern. It also extends Ownable to control that just the owner can stop it.
  • SafeMath: library that avoids the integer overflow and underflow issue.

Moreover, the OraclizeAPI package has been imported from the corresponding NPM package, concretely the following contract:

  • usingOraclize: implements the oracle used by YouTubeEvidences to check that a YouTube video is owned by a particular user and linked to its manifestation.

NOTE: previous versions of the project imported Oraclize using EthPM as specified in ethpm.json. However, switched to NPM because more up to date versions are available now using this tool.

Additional Requirements

The smart contracts code has been commented according to the specs in the documentation https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.4.21/layout-of-source-files.html#comments and following the Ethereum Natural Specification guidelines as documented in https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Ethereum-Natural-Specification-Format

Stretch Goals

IPFS

When a user registers a piece of content using a digital file, it is uploaded to IPFS and the corresponding IPFS identifier (hash) is used to register the manifestation of the content in Ethereum. Users are offered the option of keeping content private, so it is not uploaded to IPFS and just the content hash is generated. It can be later used as a proof of having the digital file so users are recommended to keep the same exact file they used to generate the hash.

The same is done for evidence based on uploading content to IPFS, that then becomes available for inspection.

In both cases, the user interface provides links to IPFS to retrieve the uploaded content.

uPort

When a user accesses the application from a browser that does not provide Web3, for instance without the MetaMask plugin or after deactivating it, CopyrightLY will offer the option to login using uPort.

As indicated in this case, the uPort mobile application is required to create an identity and the associated Ethereum accounts. The mobile application is used to scan the QR codes generated by the application to perform login or transaction signing.

Currently, the application uses uPort through the Rinkeby network. Please, make sure that you have or create an account in that network.

Ethereum Name Service

To integrate ENS the guidelines available at https://medium.com/the-ethereum-name-service/adding-ens-into-your-dapp-72eb6deac26b have been followed.

The ethereum-ens package has been installed and an Angular Service EnsService that implements reverse resolution of addresses to ENS names. This library works on the Main Ethereum Network, Ropsten and Rinkeby. It has been checked with Ropsten and it works properly, showing the reverse of the currently selected account in MetaMask instead of the address, if available.

The application has been prepared to also provide ENS when working with a local test network. To do so, the @ensdomains/ens package has been also installed, which provides all ENS contracts to be deployed locally. This is done with migration 4_deploy_ens.js, which deploys them and also sets ENS names for addresses 0, 1 and 2, respectively “Alice.eth”, “Bob.eth” and “Charlie.eth”.

Oracles

An oracle has been used in the YouTubeEvidences contract. This contract implements an Oracle that checks if a specific YouTube video, identified using its VIDEO_ID, has in the description of its web page (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIDEO_ID) a link to a specific content hash.

Thus, the Oracle allows a creator to assert that a manifestation is also available on YouTube as a video owned by the same person, who should have access to edit the description of the video to include the link to the manifestation using its hash.

The tests for this contract are possible in the Ganache test network using the ethereum-bridge as recommended in the Oraclize documentation. The tests are available from youtubeevidences.test.js

It also possible to test the Oraclize query online at: http://app.oraclize.it/home/test_query

For example: for the query:

html(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZwVNLDIJKVA).xpath(count(//div[contains(@id,'description')]//a[contains(@href,'QmPP8X2rWc2uanbnKpxfzEAAuHPuThQRtxpoY8CYVJxDj8')])) 

The result should be 1.0 because there is a link to the proper manifestation in the video description for https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZwVNLDIJKVA

Upgradable Pattern Registry or Delegation

To make the Manifestations contracts upgradable, the Delegation pattern has been used through a Relay or Proxy. Concretely, the AdminUpgradeabilityProxy provided by the ZeppelinOS Library, as detailed in https://docs.zeppelinos.org/docs/low_level_contract.html

Upgradeability of the Manifestations contract is tested in manifestations_upgradeability.test.js

The file 6_upgrade_manifestations provides an example of how Manifestations can be upgraded adding a new migration step.

NOTE: When testing locally, the second account (accounts[1] with ENS name “Bob.eth”) is configured as the proxy administrator. For security reasons, if the admin account calls Manifestations through the proxy, the calls are not forwarded to the proxy. Consequently, this account cannot be used to register manifestations. A “revert” error will be generated.

LLL / Vyper

A version of the Complaints contract has been also implemented using Vyper. The result is Complaints.vy, which was first validated and compiled using the Vyper Online Compiler

To integrate Vyper with Truffle, the Vyper compiler must be installed first as detailed here. Then, the project already installs the tool truper as part of its NPM development dependencies) that makes possible to use the following command to compile the Vyper contract and generate a Truffle compatible artifact:

NOTE: the last version of the application has ported this contract to Solidity. The Vyper version is available from the branch corresponding to the Consensys Academy 2018 submission

npm run vyper 

For the moment, Truper just generates the artifacts in “build/contracts” so it should be moved to “src/assets/contracts”. This is the folder configured in truffle.js as the destination for Truffle artifacts so they are deployed with the Angular frontend. Moreover, it should be renamed “Complaints.json” instead of the original “Complaints.vyper.json”, as it seems Truffle expects it with that name.

Testnet Deployment

Deployments to both Ropsten and Rinkeby at the addresses detailed in the file: deployed_addresses.txt

Ropsten deployment uses private HDWallet, so the owner and proxy admin accounts are not available. Ropsten is the network intended when using the client Web application deployed at: https://copyrightly.rhizomik.net

Rinkeby using public HDWallet with mnemonic:

candy maple cake sugar pudding cream honey rich smooth crumble sweet treat 

Therefore, anyone can test restricted methods like pause() or unpause() for the contracts’ owner ( account[0] ) or upgradeTo() for the proxy contract admin ( accounts[1] ).


CopyrightLY

Decentralized Application (ÐApp) for Copyright Management (available on Ethereum’s testnets Rinkeby and Ropsten through https://copyrightly.rhizomik.net)

CopyrightLY - 版权所有

Note: project originally developed to fulfil the Consensys Academy 2018 Developer Program online course. The focus was on learning and showcasing a wide range of techniques and technologies (IPFS, ENS, Oracles, Upgradeability,…) and not on providing a complete product. The project helped getting the top qualification for that cohort: 114.8 of 120 points.

CopyrightLY smart contracts allow content owners to register their works as what is called a Manifestation, as modelled in the Copyright Ontology.

Manifestations are expressions of authors ideas into pieces of content that can be then used to prove authorship. This is done through the Manifestations contract, which records the IPFS hash of the manifestation content, its title (additional metadata is planned) and when it was manifested. This information can be later used to prove authorship as the content can be retrieved from IPFS.

However, it is not enough to register a Manifestation. Evidences should be also provided to support the authorship claim or the Manifestation will expire after one day. Usually done by the author registering the Manifestation but anyone can add an Evidence supporting a Manifestation

There are Evidences based on content uploaded (to IPFS), implemented by the UploadEvidences contract. The uploaded content can be anything, from a screenshot to a scanned contract in PDF format.

There are also Evidences based on having previously published the content online, for instance in YouTube. The YouTubeEvidences contract allows claiming that a video Manifestation content is also available on YouTube.

Future work:

  • Register YouTubeEvidences from the user interface.
  • Make it possible to register Complaints from the user interface, if someone else has registered content we own. Currently, the contract is implemented but its functionality is not available from the Web client.
  • Evidences can be also added to Complaints.
  • Implement a Token Curated Registry (TCR) of Evidences supporting Manifestations and Complaints. To add evidence, an amount of the CLY token has to be staked. Moreover, anyone (the curators) can also mint some CLY and stake it to support a piece of evidence, with the opportunity of winning additional CLY if they support evidence of a winning manifestation or claim… but the risk of losing it otherwise.

Table of Contents

  • Table of Contents
  • Features
  • Running Locally
    • Required Tools
    • Smart Contracts Deployment
    • Launch Web Application
  • Testing
    • Manifestations Contract
    • UploadEvidences Contract
    • Complaints Contract
    • ExpirableLib Library
    • Evidencable Contract
  • Design Pattern Requirements
  • Security Tools / Common Attacks
  • Library / EthPM
  • Additional Requirements
  • Stretch Goals
    • IPFS
    • uPort
    • Ethereum Name Service
    • Oracles
    • Upgradable Pattern Registry or Delegation
    • LLL / Vyper
    • Testnet Deployment

Features

The functionality provided to the users by the ÐApp through its Web application is:

  1. Minifest Single Authorship

    • Scenario: Register a piece of content not previously registered
    • Scenario: Register a piece of content previously registered
  2. Search Manifestation

    • Scenario: Search a piece of content previously registered
    • Scenario: Search a piece of content not registered
  3. List Own Manifestations

    • Scenario: List own manifestations when I have one
  4. View Manifestation Details (pending e2e tests)

    • Scenario: Detail manifestation without evidence
    • Scenario: Detail manifestation with evidence
  5. Add Uploadable Evidence to Manifestation (pending e2e tests)

    • Scenario: Add unused uploadable evidence
    • Scenario: Add previously used uploadable evidence

For each feature, the linked feature file specifies the steps to accomplish each scenario. The steps are implemented in the steps and pages folders so it is possible to automatically check that the application implements the specified behaviour using End-to-End (E2E) tests based on Cucumber and Protractor.

A report of the feature tests results is available: protractor-cucumber_report

Running Locally

Requirements

Contract deployment and testing is done via Truffle and using Ganache CLI.

Client Web application development is based on Angular.

To install the project and all the required tools:

1-. Clone the project with Git (or download and unzip):

git clone https://github.com/rogargon/copyrightly.git 

2.- Install the project dependencies and development tools, using the following commands from the “copyrightly” folder (run ony by one, in the same order and waiting until the previous one ends):

cd copyrightly  npm install  

Smart Contracts Deployment

After npm has installed all dependencies (requires some time), it is time to deploy the ÐApp smart contracts.

First, start a local development network with the command:

npm run network 

This will start Ganache in http://127.0.0.1:8545 together with 10 sample accounts. These accounts are fixed using the seed:

candy maple cake sugar pudding cream honey rich smooth crumble sweet treat 

To be able to deploy the YouTubeEvidences contract that make use of oracles, as detailed in Oracles section, it is also necessary to deploy the Oraclize Ethereum Bridge on the local network using the following command from a separate terminal:

npm run ethereum-bridge 

Finally, deploy the contracts from another terminal (leaving Ganache and the bridge running on the previous ones):

npm run migrate 

If there are no errors, the contracts will be then deployed to the local development network.

In case the contracts have been previously deployed, and we want to force re-deployment, use the following command instead:

npm run migrate -- --reset 

Launch Web Application

Finally, to start the Angular client Web application locally:

npm start 

Once started, it will be available at: http://localhost:4200

The client application provides the features listed in the Features section above.

It can be tested using the accounts provided by Ganache without requiring a Web3 enabled browser, so you can even test it without the MetaMask extension or after disabling it.

If MetaMask is available, it can be used to configure custom accounts and to sign transactions. For testing, you can load the accounts generated by Ganache using the following seed phrase:

candy maple cake sugar pudding cream honey rich smooth crumble sweet treat 

Then, configure the network used by MetaMask to “Localhost 8545” as shown here.

Support for uPort is pending, but other very convenient Web3 enabled browsers can also be used. Cipher or Coinbase Wallet are recommended on mobile devices. They provide nice features like transactions signing using TouchID/FaceID on iOS or Fingerprint Authentication on Android.

They can be used to test the version of the application already deployed online at: https://copyrightly.rhizomik.net

The application is also available as a Docker container at: https://hub.docker.com/r/rogargon/copyrightly-io/

Testing

The Solidity smart contracts feature a set of tests that can be launched with the following command:

npm run soltest 

The application contracts, and all those imported by them, are compiled before running the tests. Some warnings might appear, but all of them are related to the imported contracts: Proxy and AdminUpgradeabilityProxy from ZeppelinOs.

The following sections describe the tests available for each smart contract, provide links to the files implementing then and list their expected outputs.

Manifestations Contract

Source: Manifestations.sol

This contract is responsible for registering Manifestations, the expressions of authors ideas into pieces of content that can be then used to prove authorship. A manifestation is based on a content hash, some metadata (currently just the title) and the address of the account corresponding to its author (or a list of addresses in the case of joint authorship).

There are 4 Solidity Tests that test the fundamental behaviour of the contract: that the contract can register single and joint authorship (multiple authors for the same manifestation), that registering joint authorship providing just one author is equivalent to stating single authorship, and, finally, that the contract fails if and already registered content hash is used.

TestManifestations.sol

  TestManifestations     ✓ testSingleAuthorRegistered (127ms)     ✓ testJointAuthorRegistered (142ms)     ✓ testSingleAuthorThroughJointAuthorRegistered (79ms)     ✓ testAlreadyRegistered (56ms) 

In addition to the previous Solidity tests, there are 14 additional tests of the same contract but from JavaScript. It is tested again that single and joint authorship work, and that a previously registered manifestation can be later retrieved.

manifestations.test.js

  Contract: Manifestations - Single Authorship     ✓ should register a previously unregistered manifestation (57ms)     ✓ should retrieve a previously registered manifestation     ✓ shouldn't register a previously registered manifestation    Contract: Manifestations - Joint Authorship     ✓ should register joint authorship for unregistered manifestation (55ms)     ✓ should retrieve a previously registered joint authorship manifestation     ✓ shouldn't register a previously registered joint authorship manifestation 

Then, there are tests for the behaviours inherited from the contracts extended by Manifestations.

From OpenZeppelin’s Pausable and Ownable, that the contract can be paused and resumed, but just by the contract owner.

manifestations.test.js

  Contract: Manifestations - Pausable     ✓ shouldn't work when paused by owner (55ms)     ✓ should work again when unpaused by owner (86ms)     ✓ shouldn't be paused by a non-owner 

From ZeppelinOS’ AdminUpgradeabilityProxy, that Manifestations is upgradable and retains state after an upgrade by the proxy admin. Then, that the proxy admin cannot use the proxy to call the proxied Manifestations contract, required for security reasons. Finally, that Manifestations cannot be re-initialized (it has been already initialized during the initial deployment migration). This behaviour is required to make Manifestations upgradable and inherited by extending Initializable.

manifestations_upgradeability.test.js

  Contract: Manifestations - Upgradeability     ✓ should keep stored manifestations after upgrade (151ms)     ✓ shouldn't allow upgrade if called by non-admin (84ms)     ✓ shouldn't work when called by admin through proxy for security     ✓ should fail when trying to re-initialize it 

Finally, the Manifestations contract uses the ExpirableLib library and extends the Evidencable contract, both detailed in a specific subsection below.

ExpirableLib makes it possible to overwrite manifestations that have not received any authorship evidence before an expiry time. The following tests validate that a manifestation can be re-registered after it has expired, but only if it hasn’t received any authorship evidence.

To do so, a new version of the Manifestations contract just for testing is deployed with a “time to expiry” of just 2 seconds. The tests check that re-registration is possible just after more than 2 seconds, but just if no evidence has been added.

manifestations_expirable.test.js

  Contract: Manifestations - Expirable     ✓ should re-register just when already expired (3266ms)     ✓ shouldn't expire if manifestation with evidence (3138ms) 

UploadEvidences Contract

Source: UploadEvidences.sol

This contract implements the registration of evidence-based on uploading content to IPFS. It behaves as an evidence provider for the contract specified when adding the evidence. However, the contract has to be registered as an allowed evidence provider, in the case of these tests in the Manifestations contract.

Multiple evidence should be accumulated for the same manifestation, but just if they are new ones and if the manifestation they are evidence for exists. Finally, only the owner of Manifestations can register evidence providers. It is tested that just the owner of Manifestations can register a new provider that then can add evidence as usual.

uploadevidences.test.js

  Contract: UploadEvidences - Manifestations accumulate evidence     ✓ should add evidence if registered evidence provider (220ms)     ✓ should add multiple evidence for the same manifestation (124ms)     ✓ shouldn't add the same evidence for the same manifestation (116ms)     ✓ shouldn't add the same evidence for a different manifestation (142ms)     ✓ shouldn't add evidence if the manifestation does not exist (522ms)     ✓ shouldn't add evidence if not a registered evidence provider (556ms)     ✓ should be enforced that just the owner registers evidence providers (558ms)  

Complaints Contract

Source: Complaints.sol

This contract was initially implemented using Vyper as detailed in the LLL / Vyper Section. Currently, it uses Solidity as the rest of contracts. It is responsible for registering complaints from accounts that consider that an existing manifestation is not a proper one, i.e. coming from the right creator.

The corresponding tests verify that just one complaint about a given manifestation is allowed at the same time. It is also checked that complaints can be revoked just by the contract owner. Finally, just existing and non-revoked complaints can be retrieved.

complaints.test.js

  Contract: Complaints - Register complaints     ✓ should register a new complaint (160ms)     ✓ shouldn't register a complaint if already one for manifestation     ✓ shouldn't allow revoking complaint if not contract owner     ✓ should retrieve an existing complaint     ✓ should allow revoking complaint if contract owner (46ms)     ✓ shouldn't allow retrieving a revoked complaint     ✓ shouldn't allow retrieving an unexisting complaint 

ExpirableLib Library

Source: ExpirableLib.sol

This library contains the logic for items with a creation and expiry time. With it, manifestations (or complaints) can expire after a certain amount of time. It is tested for Manifestations in: manifestations_expirable.test.js

Evidencable Contract

Source: Evidencable.sol

This is a contract that provides the logic for items that can accumulate evidence. Manifestations (or complaints) can receive evidence by extending this contract.

The idea is that evidence is considered by curators to check the appropriateness of manifestations (and complaints). Moreover, they are counted so manifestations (or complaints) that have accumulated at least one evidence do not expire, as tested for Manifestations in: manifestations_expirable.test.js

Design Pattern Requirements

Details about design pattern decisions

Security Tools / Common Attacks

Details about avoiding common attacks

Library / EthPM

The project imports the following Libraries and Contracts from the corresponding ZeppelinOs and OpenZeppelin NPM packages.

Imported from ZeppelinOS:

  • AdminUpgradeabilityProxy: the proxy contract to implement upgradeability.
  • Initializable: extended by upgradable contracts so they can be initialized from the corresponding proxy.

Imported from OpenZeppelin:

  • Pausable: contract to implement the “Circuit Breaker / Emergency Stop” design pattern. It also extends Ownable to control that just the owner can stop it.
  • SafeMath: library that avoids the integer overflow and underflow issue.

Moreover, the OraclizeAPI package has been imported from the corresponding NPM package, concretely the following contract:

  • usingOraclize: implements the oracle used by YouTubeEvidences to check that a YouTube video is owned by a particular user and linked to its manifestation.

NOTE: previous versions of the project imported Oraclize using EthPM as specified in ethpm.json. However, switched to NPM because more up to date versions are available now using this tool.

Additional Requirements

The smart contracts code has been commented according to the specs in the documentation https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.4.21/layout-of-source-files.html#comments and following the Ethereum Natural Specification guidelines as documented in https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Ethereum-Natural-Specification-Format

Stretch Goals

IPFS

When a user registers a piece of content using a digital file, it is uploaded to IPFS and the corresponding IPFS identifier (hash) is used to register the manifestation of the content in Ethereum. Users are offered the option of keeping content private, so it is not uploaded to IPFS and just the content hash is generated. It can be later used as a proof of having the digital file so users are recommended to keep the same exact file they used to generate the hash.

The same is done for evidence based on uploading content to IPFS, that then becomes available for inspection.

In both cases, the user interface provides links to IPFS to retrieve the uploaded content.

uPort

When a user accesses the application from a browser that does not provide Web3, for instance without the MetaMask plugin or after deactivating it, CopyrightLY will offer the option to login using uPort.

As indicated in this case, the uPort mobile application is required to create an identity and the associated Ethereum accounts. The mobile application is used to scan the QR codes generated by the application to perform login or transaction signing.

Currently, the application uses uPort through the Rinkeby network. Please, make sure that you have or create an account in that network.

Ethereum Name Service

To integrate ENS the guidelines available at https://medium.com/the-ethereum-name-service/adding-ens-into-your-dapp-72eb6deac26b have been followed.

The ethereum-ens package has been installed and an Angular Service EnsService that implements reverse resolution of addresses to ENS names. This library works on the Main Ethereum Network, Ropsten and Rinkeby. It has been checked with Ropsten and it works properly, showing the reverse of the currently selected account in MetaMask instead of the address, if available.

The application has been prepared to also provide ENS when working with a local test network. To do so, the @ensdomains/ens package has been also installed, which provides all ENS contracts to be deployed locally. This is done with migration 4_deploy_ens.js, which deploys them and also sets ENS names for addresses 0, 1 and 2, respectively “Alice.eth”, “Bob.eth” and “Charlie.eth”.

Oracles

An oracle has been used in the YouTubeEvidences contract. This contract implements an Oracle that checks if a specific YouTube video, identified using its VIDEO_ID, has in the description of its web page (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIDEO_ID) a link to a specific content hash.

Thus, the Oracle allows a creator to assert that a manifestation is also available on YouTube as a video owned by the same person, who should have access to edit the description of the video to include the link to the manifestation using its hash.

The tests for this contract are possible in the Ganache test network using the ethereum-bridge as recommended in the Oraclize documentation. The tests are available from youtubeevidences.test.js

It also possible to test the Oraclize query online at: http://app.oraclize.it/home/test_query

For example: for the query:

html(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZwVNLDIJKVA).xpath(count(//div[contains(@id,'description')]//a[contains(@href,'QmPP8X2rWc2uanbnKpxfzEAAuHPuThQRtxpoY8CYVJxDj8')])) 

The result should be 1.0 because there is a link to the proper manifestation in the video description for https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZwVNLDIJKVA

Upgradable Pattern Registry or Delegation

To make the Manifestations contracts upgradable, the Delegation pattern has been used through a Relay or Proxy. Concretely, the AdminUpgradeabilityProxy provided by the ZeppelinOS Library, as detailed in https://docs.zeppelinos.org/docs/low_level_contract.html

Upgradeability of the Manifestations contract is tested in manifestations_upgradeability.test.js

The file 6_upgrade_manifestations provides an example of how Manifestations can be upgraded adding a new migration step.

NOTE: When testing locally, the second account (accounts[1] with ENS name “Bob.eth”) is configured as the proxy administrator. For security reasons, if the admin account calls Manifestations through the proxy, the calls are not forwarded to the proxy. Consequently, this account cannot be used to register manifestations. A “revert” error will be generated.

LLL / Vyper

A version of the Complaints contract has been also implemented using Vyper. The result is Complaints.vy, which was first validated and compiled using the Vyper Online Compiler

To integrate Vyper with Truffle, the Vyper compiler must be installed first as detailed here. Then, the project already installs the tool truper as part of its NPM development dependencies) that makes possible to use the following command to compile the Vyper contract and generate a Truffle compatible artifact:

NOTE: the last version of the application has ported this contract to Solidity. The Vyper version is available from the branch corresponding to the Consensys Academy 2018 submission

npm run vyper 

For the moment, Truper just generates the artifacts in “build/contracts” so it should be moved to “src/assets/contracts”. This is the folder configured in truffle.js as the destination for Truffle artifacts so they are deployed with the Angular frontend. Moreover, it should be renamed “Complaints.json” instead of the original “Complaints.vyper.json”, as it seems Truffle expects it with that name.

Testnet Deployment

Deployments to both Ropsten and Rinkeby at the addresses detailed in the file: deployed_addresses.txt

Ropsten deployment uses private HDWallet, so the owner and proxy admin accounts are not available. Ropsten is the network intended when using the client Web application deployed at: https://copyrightly.rhizomik.net

Rinkeby using public HDWallet with mnemonic:

candy maple cake sugar pudding cream honey rich smooth crumble sweet treat 

Therefore, anyone can test restricted methods like pause() or unpause() for the contracts’ owner ( account[0] ) or upgradeTo() for the proxy contract admin ( accounts[1] ).

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