Solidity-CI SVM Docker – Solidity CI SVM Docker公司区块链毕设代写

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Solidity-CI SVM Docker

Solidity-CI SVM Docker - Solidity CI SVM Docker公司 Solidity-CI SVM Docker - Solidity CI SVM Docker公司

Supported tags and respective Dockerfile links

#{range $_, $v := .Versions}

#{$v.Version}

#{range $_, $b := $v.Builds}

  • #{$b.Tag}#{range $_, $t := $b.Base.AdditionalTags}, #{$t}#{end} (#{$b.Base.Base}/Dockerfile) #{end}#{end}

What is Solidity

Solidity is a contract-oriented, high-level language for implementing smart contracts. It was influenced by C++, Python and JavaScript and is designed to target the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).

Solidity is statically typed, supports inheritance, libraries and complex user-defined types among other features.

Contract definition

The pragma is the first line of any smart contract written in solidity.

It specifies the solidity language version.

pragma solidity ^0.5.4;  contract HelloWorld {  }

Constructor

Contract can be initialised with defaut paramaters. Therefore, a constructor can be defined.

pragma solidity ^0.5.4;  contract HelloWorld {     address owner;     uint contractId;      constructor(uint _contractId) public payable{         owner = msg.sender;         contractId = _contractId;     } }

Value types

The following types are also called value types because variables of these types will always be passed by value, i.e. they are always copied when they are used as function arguments or in assignments.

Variables : integer

contract HelloWorld {     uint anUnsignedInteger = 400;     int anSignedInteger = 8;     int constant aConstant = 10; }

int8 to int 256/ uint8 to uint256: Signed and unsigned integers of various sizes. Keywords uint8 to uint256 in steps of 8 (unsigned of 8 up to 256 bits) and int8 to int256. uint and int are aliases for uint256 and int256, respectively.

Operators:

Comparisons : <=, <, ==, !=, >=, >

Bit operators : &, |, ^ (bitwise exclusive or), ~ (bitwise negation)

Arithmetic operators : +, -, unary -, unary +, *, /, % (remainder), ** (exponentiation), << (left shift), >> (right shift)

Variables : addresses

address: Holds a 20 byte value (size of an Ethereum address). Address types also have members and serve as a base for all contracts.

Operators:

<=, <, ==, !=, >= and >

Variables : addresses

Members :

  • balance
  • transfer
  • call
  • delegateCall
  • send

Example :

address x = 0x123; address myAddress = this; if (x.balance < 10 && myAddress.balance >= 10) x.transfer(10); myAddress.call.gas(1000000).value(1 ether)("register", "MyName");

Notes : It is possible to query the balance of an address using the property balance and to send Ether (in units of wei) to an address using the transfer function

transfer : call the fallback function of the contract and send ether in a secure way. If the call fail, the transaction is reverted.

send : the transaction must be explicitely reverted in the send fail, you have to check for the returned value

call and delegatecall: takes an arbitrary number of arguments of any type. These arguments are padded to 32 bytes and concatenated. The modifiers gas and value allow to specify a gaz number and send some ether with the transaction

delegatecall : same as called except that only the code of the given address is used, all other aspects (storage, balance, …) are taken from the current contract. The purpose of delegatecall is to use library code which is stored in another contract.

Variables : bool

bool : The possible values are constants true and false.

    bool mybool = true;

Operators :

  • ! (logical negation)
  • && (logical conjunction, “and”)
  • || (logical disjunction, “or”)
  • == (equality)
  • != (inequality)

About fixed point number

Fixed point numbers are not fully supported by Solidity yet. They can be declared, but cannot be assigned to or from.

fixed<M><N>: signed fixed-point decimal number of M bits, 8 <= M <= 256, M % 8 ==0, and 0 < N <= 80

ufixed<M><N>: unsigned variant of fixedx.

fixed, ufixed: synonyms for fixed128x18, ufixed128x18 respectively.

Variables : Fixed-size byte arrays

bytes1, bytes2, bytes3, …, bytes32. byte is an alias for bytes1.

Operators :

  • Comparisons: <=, <, ==, !=, >=, > (evaluate to bool)
  • Bit operators: &, |, ^ (bitwise exclusive or), ~ (bitwise negation), << (left shift), >> (right shift)
  • Index access: x[k] for 0 <= k < I returns the k th byte (read-only).

Members :

  • .length yields the fixed length of the byte array (read-only).

Variables : Dynamically-sized byte array

bytes : Dynamically-sized byte array, see Arrays. Not a value-type!

    byte a; // equivalent to bytes1     bytes2 b;     bytes32 c;

string : Dynamically-sized UTF-8-encoded string. Does not allow lenght or access by index for now. Not a value-type!

string n = "hello"; 

Notes : As a rule of thumb, use bytes for arbitrary-length raw byte data and string for arbitrary-length string (UTF-8) data. If you can limit the length to a certain number of bytes, always use one of bytes1 to bytes32 because they are much cheaper.

Array

Arrays can have be fixed-sized or dynamic-sized.

pragma solidity ^0.4.16; contract C {     function f(uint len) public pure {         uint[] memory a = new uint[](7);         bytes memory b = new bytes(len);         a[6] = 8;     } }

Structs

Structs are custom defined types that can group several variables.

contract Ballot {     struct Voter {         uint weight; // weight is accumulated by delegation         bool voted;  // if true, that person already voted         address delegate; // person delegated to         uint vote;   // index of the voted proposal     }          function myFunctionUsingVoter() external {         Voter voter1 = Voter(1,false,'0xd343FEd394302', 5);         Voter voter2 = Voter({voted: true, weight:2, vote: 5});         Voter memory inMemoryVoter; // for temporary data         inMemoryVoter.voted = true; // will only write to memory      }

Mapping

A mapping is a data structure close to a hash table (hash map) : a data structure that implements an associative array abstract data type, a structure that can map keys to values.

The structure is as follow :

mapping(_KeyType => _ValueType) myMapping;
  • _KeyType can be any elementary type. This means it can be any of the built-in value types plus bytes and string. User-defined or complex types like contract types, enums, mappings, structs and any array type apart from bytes and string are not allowed.

  • _ValueType can be any type, including mappings.

Notes : The similarity ends there, the key data is not stored in a mapping, only its keccak256 hash is used to look up the value. Because of this, mappings do not have a length or a concept of a key or value being set.

Mappings can only have a data location of storage and thus are allowed for state variables, as storage reference types in functions, or as parameters for library functions. They cannot be used as parameters or return parameters of contract functions that are publicly visible.

State variables visibility

Variables can have a visibility.

mapping (string => uint) public balances; State private state; address internal owner;
  • public : can be accessed by everyone. Solidity automatically generates a getter for a public variable.
  • internal (default): can only be accessed internally and only from the contract itself.
  • private : can only be accessed internally and only from the contract itself.

Enums

Enums are a simple user-defined type.

contract test {     enum ActionChoices { GoLeft, GoRight, GoStraight, SitStill }     ActionChoices choice;     ActionChoices constant defaultChoice = ActionChoices.GoStraight;      function setGoStraight() public {         choice = ActionChoices.GoStraight;     } }

Enums can be casted to uint :

uint GoLeftAction = uint(ActionChoices.GoLeft); 

Solidity compiler

Solidity is a compiled language. The solidity compiler, solc is a command-line program used like this :

Print the compiled binary file :

solc --bin sourceFile.sol

Output everything to separate files

solc -o outputDirectory --bin --ast --asm sourceFile.sol

If your contract use a library :

solc -o outputDirectory --bin --ast --asm sourceFile.sol

Notes : The compiler can produce various outputs, ranging from simple binaries and assembly over an abstract syntax tree (parse tree).

Natspec comment

Natspec comment are comments made using triple slashes : /// They can be used like regular comments (//) to comment the code. But they will also be used to show the smart contract user a message while calling the contract.

Example :

    /// Create a simple auction with `_biddingTime`     /// seconds bidding time on behalf of the     /// beneficiary address `_beneficiary`.     constructor(         uint _biddingTime,         address _beneficiary     ) public {         beneficiary = _beneficiary;         auctionEnd = now + _biddingTime;     }

Function

function (<parameter types>) {internal|external} [pure|constant|view|payable] [returns (<return types>)]

Functions can be assigned to variables and pass to other function, like in Javacript.

Lambda or inline functions are planned but not yet supported.

Notes : internal/external : Internal functions can only be called inside the current contract (more specifically, inside the current code unit, which also includes internal library functions and inherited functions) because they cannot be executed outside of the context of the current contract. Calling an internal function is realized by jumping to its entry label, just like when calling a function of the current contract internally.

External functions consist of an address and a function signature and they can be passed via and returned from external function calls.

Functions are internal by default.

Method visibility

  • public – all can access
  • external – Cannot be accessed internally, only externally
  • internal – only this contract and contracts deriving from it can access
  • private – can be accessed only from this contract

Notes : if your method is only called externally, use external every time, as it costs less gaz (the method parameters aren’t copied in memory).

Control flow

There is: if, else, while, do, for, break, continue, return, with the usual semantics known from C or JavaScript.

if (myBool) {     return 0; } else {     return 1; }  for (uint i=0; i<10; i++) {   // do something }

Events

Events are used to log datas in ongoing function execution. Useful for debugging.

The syntax is :

event <eventName>([<type> value1] [, <type> value2]...);

To trigger a event :

emit <eventName>(value1, value2);

Event example

To trace a function call :

event CoolFunctionCalled(uint param1, string param2);  function coolFunction(uint param1, string param2) {   emit CoolFunctionCalled(param1, param2);   // and thedo cool stuff }

What is Kotlin

Kotlin is a statically-typed programming language that runs on the Java virtual machine and also can be compiled to JavaScript source code or use the LLVM compiler infrastructure. Its primary development is from a team of JetBrains programmers based in Saint Petersburg, Russia. While the syntax is not compatible with Java, Kotlin is designed to interoperate with Java code and is reliant on Java code from the existing Java Class Library, such as the collections framework.

Usage

Start using the Kotlin REPL : docker container run -it --rm solidity-ci/kotlin

See Kotlin compiler version : docker container run -it --rm solidity-ci/kotlin kotlinc -version

See Kotlin compiler help : docker container run -it --rm solidity-ci/kotlin kotlinc -help

Reference

  • Kotlin website : https://kotlinlang.org

支持的标记和相应的Dockerfile链接变量:固定大小的字节数组

事件

事件示例。Base.AdditionalTags},{t}{end}(#{b)。基地。基地}/Dockerfile)
  • 余额
  • 转账
  • 调用
  • 委托调用
  • 发送!(逻辑否定)
  • &amp;(逻辑合取,“and”)
  • |(逻辑析取,“or”)
  • =(相等)
  • !=(不等式)
  • 比较:&lt;=,&lt;,==!=,&gt;=,&gt;(求值为布尔值)
  • 位运算符:&amp;,|,^(位异或),~(按位求反),&lt;(左移)、&gt;(右移)
  • 索引访问:0&lt;=k的x[k]&lt;I返回第k个字节(只读)。
  • 。length生成字节数组的固定长度(只读)。
  • KeyType可以是任何基本类型。这意味着它可以是任何内置值类型加上字节和字符串。不允许用户定义或复杂类型,如协定类型、枚举、映射、结构以及除字节和字符串之外的任何数组类型。
  • u ValueType可以是任何类型,包括映射。
  • 公共:每个人都可以访问。Solidity自动为公共变量生成getter。
  • 内部(默认):只能在内部访问,并且只能从合同本身访问。
  • 私有:只能在内部访问,并且只能从合同本身访问。
  • 公共-所有人都可以访问
  • 外部-不能在内部访问,只能在外部访问
  • 内部-只有此合同及其派生的合同才能访问私有-只能从fr访问
  • <Solidity-CI SVM Docker>Solidity-CI SVM Docker - Solidity CI SVM Docker公司

    事件

    {range$$v:=.Versions}

    事件示例。Base.AdditionalTags},{t}{end}(#{b)。基地。基地}/Dockerfile)
  • 余额
  • 转账
  • 调用
  • 委托调用
  • 发送!(逻辑否定)
  • &amp;(逻辑合取,“and”)
  • |(逻辑析取,“or”)
  • =(相等)
  • !=(不等式)
  • 比较:&lt;=,&lt;,==!=,&gt;=,&gt;(求值为布尔值)
  • 位运算符:&amp;,|,^(位异或),~(按位求反),&lt;(左移)、&gt;(右移)
  • 索引访问:0&lt;=k的x[k]&lt;I返回第k个字节(只读)。
  • 。length生成字节数组的固定长度(只读)。
  • KeyType可以是任何基本类型。这意味着它可以是任何内置值类型加上字节和字符串。不允许用户定义或复杂类型,如协定类型、枚举、映射、结构以及除字节和字符串之外的任何数组类型。
  • u ValueType可以是任何类型,包括映射。
  • 公共:每个人都可以访问。Solidity自动为公共变量生成getter。
  • 内部(默认):只能在内部访问,并且只能从合同本身访问。
  • 私有:只能在内部访问,并且只能从合同本身访问。
  • 公共-所有人都可以访问
  • 外部-不能在内部访问,只能在外部访问
  • 内部-只有此合同及其派生的合同才能访问私有-只能从fr访问
  • {range$$b:=$v.Builds}

    • 余额

    What is Solidity

    Solidity是一种面向契约的高级语言,用于实现智能合约。它受到C++、Python和JavaScript的影响,并被设计成面向虚拟机(EVM)。

    Solidity是静态类型的,支持继承、库和复杂的用户定义类型等功能。

    Contract definition

    pragma是任何用solidity编写的智能合约的第一行。

    它指定solidity语言版本。

    pragma solidity ^0.5.4;  contract HelloWorld {  }

    Constructor

    可以使用默认参数初始化合同。因此,可以定义构造函数。

    pragma solidity ^0.5.4;  contract HelloWorld {     address owner;     uint contractId;      constructor(uint _contractId) public payable{         owner = msg.sender;         contractId = _contractId;     } }

    Value types

    以下类型也称为值类型,因为这些类型的变量将始终通过值传递,即当它们用作函数参数或赋值时,它们总是被复制。

    Variables : integer

    contract HelloWorld {     uint anUnsignedInteger = 400;     int anSignedInteger = 8;     int constant aConstant = 10; }

    int8 to int 256/uint8 to uint256:各种大小的有符号和无符号整数。关键字uint8到uint256(8到256位的无符号)和int8到int256。uint和int分别是uint256和int256的别名。比较!=,&gt;=,&gt;

    位运算符:&amp;,|,^(位异或),~(按位求反)

    算术运算符:+、-、一元-、一元+、*、/、%(余数)、**(求幂)、&lt;(左移)、&gt;(右移)

    地址:保存一个20字节的值(以太坊eth地址的大小)。地址类型也有成员,并作为所有合同的基础。

    运算符:

    Variables : addresses

    &lt;=,&lt;,==!=,&gt;=和&gt;

    成员:

    示例:

    Variables : addresses

    注意:可以使用属性余额查询地址的余额,也可以使用传输函数将以太(以wei为单位)发送到某个地址。

    • 转账
    • 调用
    • 委托调用
    • 发送!(逻辑否定)
    • &amp;(逻辑合取,“and”)

    传输:调用契约的后备函数并以安全的方式发送Ether。如果调用失败,则恢复事务。

    address x = 0x123; address myAddress = this; if (x.balance < 10 && myAddress.balance >= 10) x.transfer(10); myAddress.call.gas(1000000).value(1 ether)("register", "MyName");

    发送:事务必须在发送失败时显式还原,您必须检查返回值

    调用和delegatecall:接受任意数量的任意类型的参数。这些参数被填充到32字节并连接起来。gas和value修饰符允许指定gaz编号并随事务发送一些ether

    委托调用:与调用相同,只使用给定地址的代码,所有其他方面(存储、余额等)均取自当前合同。delegatecall的目的是使用存储在另一个契约中的库代码。

    bool:可能的值是常量true和false。

    运算符:

    Variables : bool

    固定点号尚未完全由Solidity支持。它们可以声明,但不能分配给或来自。

        bool mybool = true;

    fixed&lt;M&gt;&lt;N&gt;:M位的有符号定点十进制数,8&lt;=M&lt;=256,M%8==0,0&lt;N&lt;=80

    • |(逻辑析取,“or”)
    • =(相等)
    • !=(不等式)
    • 比较:&lt;=,&lt;,==!=,&gt;=,&gt;(求值为布尔值)
    • 位运算符:&amp;,|,^(位异或),~(按位求反),&lt;(左移)、&gt;(右移)

    About fixed point number

    ufix&lt;M&gt;&lt;N&gt;:fixedx的无符号变体。

    fixed,ufixed:分别是fixed128x18、ufixed128x18的同义词。

    字节1,字节2,字节3,…,字节32。byte是bytes1的别名。

    运算符:

    Variables : Fixed-size byte arrays

    成员:

    字节:动态调整字节数组大小,请参阅数组。不是值类型!

    • 索引访问:0&lt;=k的x[k]&lt;I返回第k个字节(只读)。
    • 。length生成字节数组的固定长度(只读)。
    • KeyType可以是任何基本类型。这意味着它可以是任何内置值类型加上字节和字符串。不允许用户定义或复杂类型,如协定类型、枚举、映射、结构以及除字节和字符串之外的任何数组类型。

    字符串:动态调整UTF-8编码字符串的大小。暂时不允许长度或按索引访问。不是值类型!

    • u ValueType可以是任何类型,包括映射。

    Variables : Dynamically-sized byte array

    注意:根据经验,对于任意长度的原始字节数据使用字节,对于任意长度的字符串(UTF-8)数据使用string。如果可以将长度限制在某个字节数内,请始终使用bytes1到bytes32中的一个,因为它们要便宜得多。

        byte a; // equivalent to bytes1     bytes2 b;     bytes32 c;

    数组可以是固定大小或动态大小。

    string n = "hello"; 

    结构是自定义定义的类型,可以对多个变量进行分组。

    Array

    映射是接近哈希表(hash map)的数据结构:实现关联数组抽象数据类型的数据结构,这种结构可以将键映射到值。

    pragma solidity ^0.4.16; contract C {     function f(uint len) public pure {         uint[] memory a = new uint[](7);         bytes memory b = new bytes(len);         a[6] = 8;     } }

    Structs

    结构如下:

    contract Ballot {     struct Voter {         uint weight; // weight is accumulated by delegation         bool voted;  // if true, that person already voted         address delegate; // person delegated to         uint vote;   // index of the voted proposal     }          function myFunctionUsingVoter() external {         Voter voter1 = Voter(1,false,'0xd343FEd394302', 5);         Voter voter2 = Voter({voted: true, weight:2, vote: 5});         Voter memory inMemoryVoter; // for temporary data         inMemoryVoter.voted = true; // will only write to memory      }

    Mapping

    u KeyType可以是任何基本类型。这意味着它可以是任何内置值类型加上字节和字符串。不允许用户定义或复杂类型,如协定类型、枚举、映射、结构以及除字节和字符串之外的任何数组类型。

    u ValueType可以是任何类型,包括映射。

    mapping(_KeyType => _ValueType) myMapping;
    • 公共:每个人都可以访问。Solidity自动为公共变量生成getter。
    • 内部(默认):只能在内部访问,并且只能从合同本身访问。

    变量可以具有可见性。

    枚举是一种简单的用户定义类型。

    State variables visibility

    枚举可以强制转换为uint:

    mapping (string => uint) public balances; State private state; address internal owner;
    • 私有:只能在内部访问,并且只能从合同本身访问。
    • 公共-所有人都可以访问
    • 外部-不能在内部访问,只能在外部访问

    Enums

    Solidity是一种编译语言。solid编译器solc是这样使用的命令行程序:

    contract test {     enum ActionChoices { GoLeft, GoRight, GoStraight, SitStill }     ActionChoices choice;     ActionChoices constant defaultChoice = ActionChoices.GoStraight;      function setGoStraight() public {         choice = ActionChoices.GoStraight;     } }

    打印编译后的二进制文件:

    uint GoLeftAction = uint(ActionChoices.GoLeft); 

    Solidity compiler

    将所有内容输出到单独的文件中

    如果您的合同使用库:

    solc --bin sourceFile.sol

    注意:编译器可以生成各种输出,从简单的二进制文件到抽象语法树(解析树)上的汇编。

    solc -o outputDirectory --bin --ast --asm sourceFile.sol

    Natspec注释是使用三斜杠生成的注释:///它们可以像常规注释(//)一样用于注释代码。但它们也将用于在调用合约时向智能合约用户显示消息。

    solc -o outputDirectory --bin --ast --asm sourceFile.sol

    示例:

    Natspec comment

    函数可以分配给变量并传递给其他函数,如在Javacript中。

    Lambda或内联函数已计划好,但尚不受支持。

        /// Create a simple auction with `_biddingTime`     /// seconds bidding time on behalf of the     /// beneficiary address `_beneficiary`.     constructor(         uint _biddingTime,         address _beneficiary     ) public {         beneficiary = _beneficiary;         auctionEnd = now + _biddingTime;     }

    Function

    function (<parameter types>) {internal|external} [pure|constant|view|payable] [returns (<return types>)]

    注意:内部/外部:内部函数只能在当前契约内部调用(更具体地说,在当前代码单元内,它还包括内部库函数和继承函数),因为它们不能在当前契约的上下文之外执行。调用内部函数是通过跳转到其条目标签来实现的,就像在内部调用当前契约的函数一样。

    外部函数由地址和函数签名组成,它们可以通过外部函数调用传递和返回。

    默认情况下,函数是内部函数。

    注意:如果您的方法只在外部调用,那么每次都要使用external,因为它花费的gaz更少(方法参数不会复制到内存中)。

    这里有:if,else,while,do,for,break,continue,return,使用C或JavaScript中常见的语义。

    Method visibility

    • 内部-只有此合同及其派生的合同才能访问私有-只能从fr访问
    • external – Cannot be accessed internally, only externally
    • internal – only this contract and contracts deriving from it can access
    • private – can be accessed only from this contract

    事件用于记录正在执行的函数中的数据。对调试很有用。

    Control flow

    语法是:

    if (myBool) {     return 0; } else {     return 1; }  for (uint i=0; i<10; i++) {   // do something }

    Events

    触发事件:

    跟踪函数调用:

    event <eventName>([<type> value1] [, <type> value2]...);

    Kotlin是一种运行在Java虚拟机上的静态类型编程语言,也可以编译为JavaScript源代码或使用LLVM编译器基础结构。它的主要开发来自俄罗斯圣彼得堡的JetBrains程序员团队。虽然该语法与Java不兼容,但Kotlin被设计为与Java代码进行互操作,并且依赖于现有Java类库中的Java代码,例如collections框架。

    emit <eventName>(value1, value2);

    Event example

    开始使用Kotlin REPL:docker container run-it–rm solidity ci/Kotlin

    event CoolFunctionCalled(uint param1, string param2);  function coolFunction(uint param1, string param2) {   emit CoolFunctionCalled(param1, param2);   // and thedo cool stuff }

    What is Kotlin

    请参阅Kotlin编译器版本:docker container run-it–rm solidity ci/Kotlin kotlinc-版本

    Usage

    请参阅Kotlin编译器帮助:docker container run-it–rm solidity ci/Kotlin kotlinc-help

    See Kotlin compiler version : docker container run -it --rm solidity-ci/kotlin kotlinc -version

    See Kotlin compiler help : docker container run -it --rm solidity-ci/kotlin kotlinc -help

    Reference

    • Kotlin website : https://kotlinlang.org

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