Unit 20 – “Looks like we’ve made our First Contract!” – 第20单元-“看来我们签了第一份合同!”区块链毕设代写

区块链毕设代写本文提供国外最新区块链项目源码下载,包括solidity,eth,fabric等blockchain区块链,Unit 20 – “Looks like we’ve made our First Contract!” – 第20单元-“看来我们签了第一份合同!”区块链毕设代写 是一篇很好的国外资料

Unit 20 – “Looks like we’ve made our First Contract!”

Unit 20 -

Background

Your new startup has created its own Ethereum-compatible blockchain to help connect financial institutions, and the team wants to build smart contracts to automate some company finances to make everyone’s lives easier, increase transparency, and to make accounting and auditing practically automatic!

Fortunately, you’ve been learning how to program smart contracts with Solidity! What you will be doing this assignment is creating 3 ProfitSplitter contracts. These contracts will do several things:

  • Pay your Associate-level employees quickly and easily.

  • Distribute profits to different tiers of employees.

  • Distribute company shares for employees in a “deferred equity incentive plan” automatically.

Files

  • AssociateProfitSplitter.sol — Level 1 starter code.

  • TieredProfitSplitter.sol — Level 2 starter code.

  • DeferredEquityPlan.sol — Level 3 starter code.

Instructions

This assignment has three levels of difficulty, with each contract increasing in complexity and capability. Although it is highly recommended you complete all three contracts, you are only required to solve one of the three contracts. Recommended to start with Level 1, then move forward as you complete the challenges. You can build all three with the skills you already have!

  • Level One is an AssociateProfitSplitter contract. This will accept Ether into the contract and divide the Ether evenly among the associate level employees. This will allow the Human Resources department to pay employees quickly and efficiently.

  • Level Two is a TieredProfitSplitter that will distribute different percentages of incoming Ether to employees at different tiers/levels. For example, the CEO gets paid 60%, CTO 25%, and Bob gets 15%.

  • Level Three is a DeferredEquityPlan that models traditional company stock plans. This contract will automatically manage 1000 shares with an annual distribution of 250 over 4 years for a single employee.

Starting your project

Navigate to the Remix IDE and create a new contract called AssociateProfitSplitter.sol using the starter code for level one above.

While developing and testing your contract, use the Ganache development chain, and point MetaMask to localhost:8545, or replace the port with what you have set in your workspace.

Level One: The AssociateProfitSplitter Contract

At the top of your contract, you will need to define the following public variables:

  • employee_one — The address of the first employee. Make sure to set this to payable.

  • employee_two — Another address payable that represents the second employee.

  • employee_three — The third address payable that represents the third employee.

Create a constructor function that accepts:

  • address payable _one

  • address payable _two

  • address payable _three

Within the constructor, set the employee addresses to equal the parameter values. This will allow you to avoid hardcoding the employee addresses.

Next, create the following functions:

  • balance — This function should be set to public view returns(uint), and must return the contract’s current balance. Since we should always be sending Ether to the beneficiaries, this function should always return 0. If it does not, the deposit function is not handling the remainders properly and should be fixed. This will serve as a test function of sorts.

  • deposit — This function should set to public payable check, ensuring that only the owner can call the function.

    • In this function, perform the following steps:

      • Set a uint amount to equal msg.value / 3; in order to calculate the split value of the Ether.

      • Transfer the amount to employee_one.

      • Repeat the steps for employee_two and employee_three.

      • Since uint only contains positive whole numbers, and Solidity does not fully support float/decimals, we must deal with a potential remainder at the end of this function since amount will discard the remainder during division.

      • We may either have 1 or 2 wei leftover, so transfer the msg.value - amount * 3 back to msg.sender. This will re-multiply the amount by 3, then subtract it from the msg.value to account for any leftover wei, and send it back to Human Resources.

  • Create a fallback function using function() external payable, and call the deposit function from within it. This will ensure that the logic in deposit executes if Ether is sent directly to the contract. This is important to prevent Ether from being locked in the contract since we don’t have a withdraw function in this use-case.

Test the contract

In the Deploy tab in Remix, deploy the contract to your local Ganache chain by connecting to Injected Web3 and ensuring MetaMask is pointed to localhost:8545.

You will need to fill in the constructor parameters with your designated employee addresses.

Test the deposit function by sending various values. Keep an eye on the employee balances as you send different amounts of Ether to the contract and ensure the logic is executing properly.

Unit 20 -

Level Two: The TieredProfitSplitter Contract

In this contract, rather than splitting the profits between Associate-level employees, you will calculate rudimentary percentages for different tiers of employees (CEO, CTO, and Bob).

Using the starter code, within the deposit function, perform the following:

  • Calculate the number of points/units by dividing msg.value by 100.

    • This will allow us to multiply the points with a number representing a percentage. For example, points * 60 will output a number that is ~60% of the msg.value.
  • The uint amount variable will be used to store the amount to send each employee temporarily. For each employee, set the amount to equal the number of points multiplied by the percentage (say, 60 for 60%).

  • After calculating the amount for the first employee, add the amount to the total to keep a running total of how much of the msg.value we are distributing so far.

  • Then, transfer the amount to employee_one. Repeat the steps for each employee, setting the amount to equal the points multiplied by their given percentage.

  • For example, each transfer should look something like the following for each employee, until after transferring to the third employee:

    • Step 1: amount = points * 60;

      • For employee_one, distribute points * 60.

      • For employee_two, distribute points * 25.

      • For employee_three, distribute points * 15.

    • Step 2: total += amount;

    • Step 3: employee_one.transfer(amount);

  • Send the remainder to the employee with the highest percentage by subtracting total from msg.value, and sending that to an employee.

  • Deploy and test the contract functionality by depositing various Ether values (greater than 100 wei).

    • The provided balance function can be used as a test to see if the logic you have in the deposit function is valid. Since all of the Ether should be transferred to employees, this function should always return 0, since the contract should never store Ether itself.

    • Note: The 100 wei threshold is due to the way we calculate the points. If we send less than 100 wei, for example, 80 wei, points would equal 0 because 80 / 100 equals 0 because the remainder is discarded. We will learn more advanced arbitrary precision division later in the course. In this case, we can disregard the threshold as 100 wei is a significantly smaller value than the Ether or Gwei units that are far more commonly used in the real world (most people aren’t sending less than a penny’s worth of Ether).

Level Three: The DeferredEquityPlan Contract

In this contract, we will be managing an employee’s “deferred equity incentive plan” in which 1000 shares will be distributed over 4 years to the employee. We won’t need to work with Ether in this contract, but we will be storing and setting amounts that represent the number of distributed shares the employee owns and enforcing the vetting periods automatically.

  • A two-minute primer on deferred equity incentive plans: In this set-up, employees receive shares for joining and staying with the firm. They may receive, for example, an award of 1,000 shares when joining, but with a 4 year vesting period for these shares. This means that these shares would stay with the company, with only 250 shares (1,000/4) actually distributed to and owned by the employee each year. If the employee leaves within the first 4 years, he or she would forfeit ownership of any remaining (“unvested”) shares.

    • If, for example, the employee only sticks around for the first two years before moving on, the employee’s account will end up with 500 shares (250 shares * 2 years), with the remaining 500 shares staying with the company. In this above example, only half of the shares (and any distributions of company profit associated with them) actually “vested”, or became fully owned by the employee. The remaining half, which were still “deferred” or “unvested”, ended up fully owned by the company since the employee left midway through the incentive/vesting period.

    • Specific vesting periods, the dollar/crypto value of shares awarded, and the percentage equity stake (the percentage ownership of the company) all tend to vary according to the company, the specialized skills, or seniority of the employee, and the negotiating positions of the employee/company. If you receive an offer from a company offering equity (which is great!), just make sure you can clarify the current dollar value of those shares being offered (based on, perhaps, valuation implied by the most recent outside funding round). In other words, don’t be content with just receiving “X” number of shares without having a credible sense of what amount of dollars that “X” number represents. Be sure to understand your vesting schedule as well, particularly if you think you may not stick around for an extended period of time.

Using the starter code, perform the following:

  • Human Resources will be set in the constructor as the msg.sender, since HR will be deploying the contract.

  • Below the employee initialization variables at the top (after bool active = true;), set the total shares and annual distribution:

    • Create a uint called total_shares and set this to 1000.

    • Create another uint called annual_distribution and set this to 250. This equates to a 4 year vesting period for the total_shares, as 250 will be distributed per year. Since it is expensive to calculate this in Solidity, we can simply set these values manually. You can tweak them as you see fit, as long as you can divide total_shares by annual_distribution evenly.

  • The uint start_time = now; line permanently stores the contract’s start date. We’ll use this to calculate the vested shares later. Below this variable, set the unlock_time to equal now plus 365 days. We will increment each distribution period.

  • The uint public distributed_shares will track how many vested shares the employee has claimed and was distributed. By default, this is 0.

  • In the distribute function:

    • Add the following require statements:

      • Require that unlock_time is less than or equal to now.

      • Require that distributed_shares is less than the total_shares the employee was set for.

      • Ensure to provide error messages in your require statements.

    • After the require statements, add 365 days to the unlock_time. This will calculate next year’s unlock time before distributing this year’s shares. We want to perform all of our calculations like this before distributing the shares.

    • Next, set the new value for distributed_shares by calculating how many years have passed since start_time multiplied by annual_distributions. For example:

      • The distributed_shares is equal to (now - start_time) divided by 365 days, multiplied by the annual distribution. If now - start_time is less than 365 days, the output will be 0 since the remainder will be discarded. If it is something like 400 days, the output will equal 1, meaning distributed_shares would equal 250.

      • Make sure to include the parenthesis around now - start_time in your calculation to ensure that the order of operations is followed properly.

    • The final if statement provided checks that in case the employee does not cash out until 5+ years after the contract start, the contract does not reward more than the total_shares agreed upon in the contract.

  • Deploy and test your contract locally.

    • For this contract, test the timelock functionality by adding a new variable called uint fakenow = now; as the first line of the contract, then replace every other instance of now with fakenow. Utilize the following fastforward function to manipulate fakenow during testing.

    • Add this function to “fast forward” time by 100 days when the contract is deployed (requires setting up fakenow):

      function fastforward() public {     fakenow += 100 days; }
    • Once you are satisfied with your contract’s logic, revert the fakenow testing logic.

  • Congratulate yourself for building such complex smart contracts in your first week of Solidity! You are learning specialized skills that are highly desired in the blockchain industry!

Deploy the contracts to a live Testnet

Once you feel comfortable with your contracts, point MetaMask to the Kovan or Ropsten network. Ensure you have test Ether on this network!

After switching MetaMask to Kovan, deploy the contracts as before and copy/keep a note of their deployed addresses. The transactions will also be in your MetaMask history, and on the blockchain permanently to explore later.

Unit 20 -

Resources

Building the next financial revolution isn’t easy, but we need your help, don’t be intimidated by the semicolons!

There are lots of great resources to learn Solidity. Remember, you are helping push the very edge of this space forward, so don’t feel discouraged if you get stuck! In fact, you should be proud that you are taking on such a challenge!

For some succinct and straightforward code snips, check out Solidity By Example

For a more extensive list of awesome Solidity resources, checkout Awesome Solidity

Another tutorial is available at EthereumDev.io

If you enjoy building games, here’s an excellent tutorial called CryptoZombies

Submission

Create a README.md that explains how each of the contracts work and what the motivation for each of the contracts is. Also, please provide screenshots to illustrate the functionality (e.g. how you send transactions, how the transferred amount is then distributed by each of the contracts, and how the timelock functionality can be tested with the fastforward function). Alternatively, you can also record your interactions with the contract as a gif (e.g. https://www.screentogif.com/)

Upload the README.md to a Github repository and provide the testnet address for others to interact with the contract.


Unit 20 – “Looks like we’ve made our First Contract!”

Unit 20 -

Background

Your new startup has created its own Ethereum-compatible blockchain to help connect financial institutions, and the team wants to build smart contracts to automate some company finances to make everyone’s lives easier, increase transparency, and to make accounting and auditing practically automatic!

Fortunately, you’ve been learning how to program smart contracts with Solidity! What you will be doing this assignment is creating 3 ProfitSplitter contracts. These contracts will do several things:

  • Pay your Associate-level employees quickly and easily.

  • Distribute profits to different tiers of employees.

  • Distribute company shares for employees in a “deferred equity incentive plan” automatically.

Files

  • AssociateProfitSplitter.sol — Level 1 starter code.

  • TieredProfitSplitter.sol — Level 2 starter code.

  • DeferredEquityPlan.sol — Level 3 starter code.

Instructions

This assignment has three levels of difficulty, with each contract increasing in complexity and capability. Although it is highly recommended you complete all three contracts, you are only required to solve one of the three contracts. Recommended to start with Level 1, then move forward as you complete the challenges. You can build all three with the skills you already have!

  • Level One is an AssociateProfitSplitter contract. This will accept Ether into the contract and divide the Ether evenly among the associate level employees. This will allow the Human Resources department to pay employees quickly and efficiently.

  • Level Two is a TieredProfitSplitter that will distribute different percentages of incoming Ether to employees at different tiers/levels. For example, the CEO gets paid 60%, CTO 25%, and Bob gets 15%.

  • Level Three is a DeferredEquityPlan that models traditional company stock plans. This contract will automatically manage 1000 shares with an annual distribution of 250 over 4 years for a single employee.

Starting your project

Navigate to the Remix IDE and create a new contract called AssociateProfitSplitter.sol using the starter code for level one above.

While developing and testing your contract, use the Ganache development chain, and point MetaMask to localhost:8545, or replace the port with what you have set in your workspace.

Level One: The AssociateProfitSplitter Contract

At the top of your contract, you will need to define the following public variables:

  • employee_one — The address of the first employee. Make sure to set this to payable.

  • employee_two — Another address payable that represents the second employee.

  • employee_three — The third address payable that represents the third employee.

Create a constructor function that accepts:

  • address payable _one

  • address payable _two

  • address payable _three

Within the constructor, set the employee addresses to equal the parameter values. This will allow you to avoid hardcoding the employee addresses.

Next, create the following functions:

  • balance — This function should be set to public view returns(uint), and must return the contract’s current balance. Since we should always be sending Ether to the beneficiaries, this function should always return 0. If it does not, the deposit function is not handling the remainders properly and should be fixed. This will serve as a test function of sorts.

  • deposit — This function should set to public payable check, ensuring that only the owner can call the function.

    • In this function, perform the following steps:

      • Set a uint amount to equal msg.value / 3; in order to calculate the split value of the Ether.

      • Transfer the amount to employee_one.

      • Repeat the steps for employee_two and employee_three.

      • Since uint only contains positive whole numbers, and Solidity does not fully support float/decimals, we must deal with a potential remainder at the end of this function since amount will discard the remainder during division.

      • We may either have 1 or 2 wei leftover, so transfer the msg.value - amount * 3 back to msg.sender. This will re-multiply the amount by 3, then subtract it from the msg.value to account for any leftover wei, and send it back to Human Resources.

  • Create a fallback function using function() external payable, and call the deposit function from within it. This will ensure that the logic in deposit executes if Ether is sent directly to the contract. This is important to prevent Ether from being locked in the contract since we don’t have a withdraw function in this use-case.

Test the contract

In the Deploy tab in Remix, deploy the contract to your local Ganache chain by connecting to Injected Web3 and ensuring MetaMask is pointed to localhost:8545.

You will need to fill in the constructor parameters with your designated employee addresses.

Test the deposit function by sending various values. Keep an eye on the employee balances as you send different amounts of Ether to the contract and ensure the logic is executing properly.

Unit 20 -

Level Two: The TieredProfitSplitter Contract

In this contract, rather than splitting the profits between Associate-level employees, you will calculate rudimentary percentages for different tiers of employees (CEO, CTO, and Bob).

Using the starter code, within the deposit function, perform the following:

  • Calculate the number of points/units by dividing msg.value by 100.

    • This will allow us to multiply the points with a number representing a percentage. For example, points * 60 will output a number that is ~60% of the msg.value.
  • The uint amount variable will be used to store the amount to send each employee temporarily. For each employee, set the amount to equal the number of points multiplied by the percentage (say, 60 for 60%).

  • After calculating the amount for the first employee, add the amount to the total to keep a running total of how much of the msg.value we are distributing so far.

  • Then, transfer the amount to employee_one. Repeat the steps for each employee, setting the amount to equal the points multiplied by their given percentage.

  • For example, each transfer should look something like the following for each employee, until after transferring to the third employee:

    • Step 1: amount = points * 60;

      • For employee_one, distribute points * 60.

      • For employee_two, distribute points * 25.

      • For employee_three, distribute points * 15.

    • Step 2: total += amount;

    • Step 3: employee_one.transfer(amount);

  • Send the remainder to the employee with the highest percentage by subtracting total from msg.value, and sending that to an employee.

  • Deploy and test the contract functionality by depositing various Ether values (greater than 100 wei).

    • The provided balance function can be used as a test to see if the logic you have in the deposit function is valid. Since all of the Ether should be transferred to employees, this function should always return 0, since the contract should never store Ether itself.

    • Note: The 100 wei threshold is due to the way we calculate the points. If we send less than 100 wei, for example, 80 wei, points would equal 0 because 80 / 100 equals 0 because the remainder is discarded. We will learn more advanced arbitrary precision division later in the course. In this case, we can disregard the threshold as 100 wei is a significantly smaller value than the Ether or Gwei units that are far more commonly used in the real world (most people aren’t sending less than a penny’s worth of Ether).

Level Three: The DeferredEquityPlan Contract

In this contract, we will be managing an employee’s “deferred equity incentive plan” in which 1000 shares will be distributed over 4 years to the employee. We won’t need to work with Ether in this contract, but we will be storing and setting amounts that represent the number of distributed shares the employee owns and enforcing the vetting periods automatically.

  • A two-minute primer on deferred equity incentive plans: In this set-up, employees receive shares for joining and staying with the firm. They may receive, for example, an award of 1,000 shares when joining, but with a 4 year vesting period for these shares. This means that these shares would stay with the company, with only 250 shares (1,000/4) actually distributed to and owned by the employee each year. If the employee leaves within the first 4 years, he or she would forfeit ownership of any remaining (“unvested”) shares.

    • If, for example, the employee only sticks around for the first two years before moving on, the employee’s account will end up with 500 shares (250 shares * 2 years), with the remaining 500 shares staying with the company. In this above example, only half of the shares (and any distributions of company profit associated with them) actually “vested”, or became fully owned by the employee. The remaining half, which were still “deferred” or “unvested”, ended up fully owned by the company since the employee left midway through the incentive/vesting period.

    • Specific vesting periods, the dollar/crypto value of shares awarded, and the percentage equity stake (the percentage ownership of the company) all tend to vary according to the company, the specialized skills, or seniority of the employee, and the negotiating positions of the employee/company. If you receive an offer from a company offering equity (which is great!), just make sure you can clarify the current dollar value of those shares being offered (based on, perhaps, valuation implied by the most recent outside funding round). In other words, don’t be content with just receiving “X” number of shares without having a credible sense of what amount of dollars that “X” number represents. Be sure to understand your vesting schedule as well, particularly if you think you may not stick around for an extended period of time.

Using the starter code, perform the following:

  • Human Resources will be set in the constructor as the msg.sender, since HR will be deploying the contract.

  • Below the employee initialization variables at the top (after bool active = true;), set the total shares and annual distribution:

    • Create a uint called total_shares and set this to 1000.

    • Create another uint called annual_distribution and set this to 250. This equates to a 4 year vesting period for the total_shares, as 250 will be distributed per year. Since it is expensive to calculate this in Solidity, we can simply set these values manually. You can tweak them as you see fit, as long as you can divide total_shares by annual_distribution evenly.

  • The uint start_time = now; line permanently stores the contract’s start date. We’ll use this to calculate the vested shares later. Below this variable, set the unlock_time to equal now plus 365 days. We will increment each distribution period.

  • The uint public distributed_shares will track how many vested shares the employee has claimed and was distributed. By default, this is 0.

  • In the distribute function:

    • Add the following require statements:

      • Require that unlock_time is less than or equal to now.

      • Require that distributed_shares is less than the total_shares the employee was set for.

      • Ensure to provide error messages in your require statements.

    • After the require statements, add 365 days to the unlock_time. This will calculate next year’s unlock time before distributing this year’s shares. We want to perform all of our calculations like this before distributing the shares.

    • Next, set the new value for distributed_shares by calculating how many years have passed since start_time multiplied by annual_distributions. For example:

      • The distributed_shares is equal to (now - start_time) divided by 365 days, multiplied by the annual distribution. If now - start_time is less than 365 days, the output will be 0 since the remainder will be discarded. If it is something like 400 days, the output will equal 1, meaning distributed_shares would equal 250.

      • Make sure to include the parenthesis around now - start_time in your calculation to ensure that the order of operations is followed properly.

    • The final if statement provided checks that in case the employee does not cash out until 5+ years after the contract start, the contract does not reward more than the total_shares agreed upon in the contract.

  • Deploy and test your contract locally.

    • For this contract, test the timelock functionality by adding a new variable called uint fakenow = now; as the first line of the contract, then replace every other instance of now with fakenow. Utilize the following fastforward function to manipulate fakenow during testing.

    • Add this function to “fast forward” time by 100 days when the contract is deployed (requires setting up fakenow):

      function fastforward() public {     fakenow += 100 days; }
    • Once you are satisfied with your contract’s logic, revert the fakenow testing logic.

  • Congratulate yourself for building such complex smart contracts in your first week of Solidity! You are learning specialized skills that are highly desired in the blockchain industry!

Deploy the contracts to a live Testnet

Once you feel comfortable with your contracts, point MetaMask to the Kovan or Ropsten network. Ensure you have test Ether on this network!

After switching MetaMask to Kovan, deploy the contracts as before and copy/keep a note of their deployed addresses. The transactions will also be in your MetaMask history, and on the blockchain permanently to explore later.

Unit 20 -

Resources

Building the next financial revolution isn’t easy, but we need your help, don’t be intimidated by the semicolons!

There are lots of great resources to learn Solidity. Remember, you are helping push the very edge of this space forward, so don’t feel discouraged if you get stuck! In fact, you should be proud that you are taking on such a challenge!

For some succinct and straightforward code snips, check out Solidity By Example

For a more extensive list of awesome Solidity resources, checkout Awesome Solidity

Another tutorial is available at EthereumDev.io

If you enjoy building games, here’s an excellent tutorial called CryptoZombies

Submission

Create a README.md that explains how each of the contracts work and what the motivation for each of the contracts is. Also, please provide screenshots to illustrate the functionality (e.g. how you send transactions, how the transferred amount is then distributed by each of the contracts, and how the timelock functionality can be tested with the fastforward function). Alternatively, you can also record your interactions with the contract as a gif (e.g. https://www.screentogif.com/)

Upload the README.md to a Github repository and provide the testnet address for others to interact with the contract.

部分转自网络,侵权联系删除区块链源码网

www.interchains.cc

https://www.interchains.cc/22617.html

区块链毕设网(www.interchains.cc)全网最靠谱的原创区块链毕设代做网站 部分资料来自网络,侵权联系删除! 最全最大的区块链源码站 ! QQ3039046426
区块链知识分享网, 以太坊dapp资源网, 区块链教程, fabric教程下载, 区块链书籍下载, 区块链资料下载, 区块链视频教程下载, 区块链基础教程, 区块链入门教程, 区块链资源 » Unit 20 – “Looks like we’ve made our First Contract!” – 第20单元-“看来我们签了第一份合同!”区块链毕设代写

提供最优质的资源集合

立即查看 了解详情